The Language in use – Use of language thematic cluster deals with social and linguistic processes, the language as such, and individual and collective linguistic practices as subjects of heritage-making in minority communities, and, at the same time, active participants in this process. In our understanding, language stands not (only) for literary language, but all geographical or societal language variations and idioms. Linguistic diversity, be it multilingualism or linguistic variance within one language, is a potential intangible heritage of the community, from local, through national, State to supranational. In past processes of nation-building, linguistic diversity has often been denied, suppressed and silenced, and even today it remains the subject of ideologically motivated, often conflicting generalisations in different settings. In the thematic cluster on language, we critically examine and evaluate language practices in relation to the dominance of language standards, and attempt to critically evaluate the role of language in heritage. We strive to detect, understand and describe possible language-shift phenomena and to collaborate with speakers to mitigate them.